While this perception granted elite men limited citizenship rights, it placed the majority in an ambiguous position. Their rights as citizens were respected when they advanced white supremacy but were denied when they threatened the status quo.
Class rather than race remained the determining factor for obtaining citizenship rights in northern Mexico. Later, the Jacksonian Democrats strengthened the link between whiteness and citizenship. Some of these ideologies were deeply ingrained in the minds of Anglo Americans when they arrived in south Texas and assumed positions of power. Far from homogenous, relations between Europeans and Indians varied by region and time period, as well as by the peculiarities of Spanish communities and indigenous nations.
According to James Brooks, the mutual interdependence between Indians and Spaniards in New Mexico led to a rough equality in power relations, and to hybrid identities and communities. As elsewhere in the northern borderlands, the colonists enslaved Indians, waged wars of extermination, and forcibly integrated indigenous servants into their society.
River of Hope : Forging Identity and Nation in the Rio Grande Borderlands
Lacking the resources and popula- tion to exert power over Spanish colonists, local Indian nations did not seize Spanish settlers, incorporate them into Native societies, or exchange them for Indian captives. As they became incorporated into Spanish society, local Indians also increased its ethnic diversity and overall population. Subject to both European and indigenous empires, the lower Rio Grande region became another con- tested borderlands whose development depended on various Indian and European nations.
Residents did not give up local control easily or imme- diately assume national identities; instead, they continued transnational practices, subverted national directives, and assumed strategic identities. Inhabitants of the lower Rio Grande region also selec- tively appealed to and claimed membership in each nation to advance local agendas. Recent scholarship has shown that while Mexican Americans were legally considered white, their acceptance as American citizens was often dependent on their racialization by Anglo American residents.
This held true along the U. While earlier scholarship emphasized declension after the U.
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In the lower Rio Grande region, colonists and soldiers led the conquest of indigenous na- tions through wars and enslavement, while missionaries played a minor role. Their creative use of the river to resist nation-state control, and their construction of hybrid identities established social and cultural precedents for future gener- ations. My ancestors hail from the borderlands of Coahuila, Tamaulipas, and Texas. My grand- parents had children born in both nations; some were Mexican citizens, others American citizens.
In , I accompanied my family as they crossed from Tamaulipas back into Texas, seeking better economic opportunities. The international border re- mained prominent in my bicultural and binational youth, which was marked by frequent trips across the river to visit family and friends. I hope that this book will help others learn about earlier generations of borderland residents. These include local government docu- ments that reveal details about the impact of political developments, and civil and criminal court records that contain information on social and economic life, as well as ecclesiastical documents that provide a window into family and social relations.
The voice of Mexicans became increasingly absent from English-language docu- ments during the American period. With a few exceptions e. My use of ethnic categories combines the terms that my subjects em- ployed during the period with the categories in current use. These terms primarily denoted nationality.
I have used American as an adjective and noun when the use of United States would be inelegant with the understanding that many Latin Americans object to the appropria- tion of this term by norteamericanos. I do not capitalize Spanish-language terms such as mexicanos following standard practice in Spanish but do capitalize English-language labels such as Mexicans as is standard practice in English. Racial categories e. After the U. When the records fail to note citizenship, I use mex- icanos or Mexicans to refer to people of Mexican descent regardless of nationality.
After , Mexicans in Texas border counties gradually ac- cepted the regional identity of fellow tejanos, so I use this term for the postwar period. The chapters are arranged topically, but overlap chronologically. Chapter 1 describes the initial Spanish colonization of this region, which began in the late s with the founding of the villas del norte. In settling and defending these river towns, the colonists interacted with Indian work- ers, slaves, consorts, enemies, and allies. Through these interactions with Indians, the vecinos created their own distinct ethnic and regional identity.
In chapter 2, I describe the internal divisions within vecino society.
While the vecinos shared common ethnic origins, distinct class and gender identities divided them internally. The opening of a legal port at Matamoros increased trade while accentuating class divisions within vecino society and fortifying links between the villas del norte and American trade centers. The Mexican government began promoting nationalism through patriotic celebrations, forced military service and obligations, and the discourse of citizenship. Although somewhat receptive to nationalist sentiments, northern borderland residents also sought regional autonomy.
Schisms that had developed between the villas del norte and the colonial state trade restrictions, political neglect, and social isolation continued to grow during the national period. Chapter 4 examines the impact and aftermath of the U. As agents of the United States, Anglo Americans furthered its state formation by administering local governments and enacting laws to regulate the cultural practices of Mexicans especially the poor.
Chap- ter 5 describes the changes in class and gender relations that American conquest introduced through new social norms and legislation. Dispossession of land and police brutality led to an uprising in which citizenship demands became promi- nent. Cattle theft created a rift between Mexican Texans and Mexican nationals as tejano landowners allied themselves with Anglo American ranchers, charging that thieves from Mexico stole their cattle. In turn, livestock owners in Mexico accused poor Mexican Texans of theft. Unlike most tejanos, who became politically sub- ordinated to Anglos, Mexican citizens in Mexico retained their social and political power.
Mexican Texans were not only politically marginalized in the United States, but also excluded from citizenship in Mexico. As a result of their political and legal subordination in the United States as well as their interactions with Mexican nationals, tejano border residents gradually de- veloped a separate ethnic identity. However, their personal names and presences have remained hardly recognized by the state and in the histori What are the lives of young incarcerated Latinas like?
River of Hope : Omar S. Valerio-jimenez :
And what were their lives like before and after their incarceration? In his new book, Caught Up: Girls, Surveillance, and Wrap-Around Incarceration University of California Press, , Jerry Flores explores these questions and more through ethnographic research along with interviews, foc Throughout many American classrooms, students learn how the United States was formed, and most importantly, the historical figures who helped produce the contemporary nation we occupy. All too often, however, African American, Latinx, and Native Americans are not given similar attention.
Rather, they are depicted as passive receivers of what th Through sixty-three shor Prior to the wave of protests in supporting immigrants in the US, there were the protests of That spring, millions of Latinos and other immigrants across the country opposed Congressional action hostile to immigrants. These protesters participated in one of the largest movements to defend immigrant and civil rights in US history.
Sloan explores ideas and discourses surrounding the suicide of men and women in Mexico City. Against the backdrop of modernity and transnational intellectual exchanges at the turn of the twentieth century, S In The National Body in Mexican Literature: Collective Challenges to Biopolitical Control Palgrave MacMillan, , Rebecca Janzen explores the complex interaction between the national body created by the rhetoric of the Mexican revolution and those bodies that did not find a space in the new national project.
Through the literary fictio The New Americans? Silber Mohamed integrates analysis of social identity Examining pamphlets, broadshe As with other industrial cities throughout the Rust Belt, Lawrence Cuba and Mexico have a long history of exchange and interaction. Cubans traveled to Mexico to work, engage in politics from afar, or expand businesses.
Erualdo R. Gonzalez addresses the salient issue of gentrification and its effect on immigrant and working-class populations in the city of Santa Ana, California. What is a book? The answer, at first glance, may seem apparent: printed material consisting of a certain amount of pages. However, when a printed item goes under the scrutiny of readers, writers, editors, scholars, etc. The matter is that, when read, discussed, or analyzed, a book is situated in a specific envi The ethnographic, theoretical and prosaic prowess of As As the frontman of The Smiths, Morrissey is regarded as one of the most influential and iconic musical performers to come out of the Manchester music scene.
Yet, for the past three decades, Morrisse Diaz examines a subject that has received scant attention by historians, but one that is at the heart of contemporary debates over U. Focusing on trans-border communities, like Lar After the enormity of our loss had been calculated, Guzman started writing. Drawn to the page to process his grief and to understand in the best way poets know how, through their art. This chapbook does more than encapsulate the memory of a community, it links that community to a single life and to a larger struggle. Welcome to Player FM What if radio played only the shows you care about, when you want?
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Take it with you. With the new army, Canales marched out of Texas and was able to recapture the towns of Laredo , Guerrero , Mier , and Camargo. After Jordan and Molano sacked the city of Ciudad Victoria and installed a new state government, they marched to Saltillo where the Mexican General Montoya was residing.
Unbeknownst to Jordan, Juan Molano had secretly switched sides and joined the centralist forces. On October 25, , the Mexican army under Montoya faced the army of the Republic of the Rio Grande under the command of Colonel Lopez who had secretly switched allegiance to General Montoya as well. Colonel Lopez ordered Jordan and his men to move into a mountain gorge. Upon realizing the trap, Jordan, his men, and the remaining loyal vaqueros to the Rio Grande Republic turned around and took refuge in a hacienda.
The Mexican army attacked the hacienda in full force but was unable to capture the Texans before they retreated. The Mexican army lost four hundred men [ dubious — discuss ] attacking the hacienda while the Texans only lost five. Canales soon accepted a position as an officer in Santa Anna's army. As part of conditions of surrender, no harm would come to the property or safety of former members of the republic.
The Republic's debts would be assumed as well.
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